The aim of this museum is to present an illustrated journey through objects, drawings and didactic reconstruction of the history of Barga, that starting from the geological eras, from prehistory reaches the witnessing of more recent periods. It is divided into various rooms, the 1st one collects a great number of fossils which give evidence of the animal and plant life in the Serchio Valley. The several stone artifacts dating back to the Mesolithic period present the archaeological part. Of great importance is the presence of objects belonging to two Ligurian graves, unearthed in Castelvecchio Pascoli and in Val di Vaiana, with ornaments, weapons and pottery which give proof of the importance of the dead couple: a man and a woman.
Some bronze idols, found in the caves of Castelvenere, present aspects of the Ligurian religious faith. In the two rooms dedicated to the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, the religious and civil events of Barga are confronted with many examples of sculpture, jewellery, paintings and precious polychrome terracottas. The last room of the museum is dedicated to the wealth and greatness of the Baroque period. The tour continues in the basement with the visit to the old prisons and the reconstruction of the torture chambre.