The construction of the bridge over the Surricchiana torrent at Calavorno dates back to the 14th century. The bridge, situated on the valley floor on the road to Castelnuovo, was realized in sandstone by local builders. Because of its position along a route of important communication, it was built as a road bridge as it is today, even if less used as the majority of traffic now passes on the nearby Statale road.

Piano di Coreglia

Piano di Coreglia as we know it today originated from the union of three small ancient urban fortifications, today known as Nestrignana (Villa di Cistrignana), Manciana e Colle (Colle Bertingo). Villa di Cistrignana, the current historical centre, the parish Church and the entire via di Nestrignana, already known in the 10th century had a fortress and was part of the parishes of Loppia. The fortress, a stronghold of the Coreglia defence system, figures in the imperial documents of 1185 and 1242 as one of the most notable fortresses of the Garfagnana. Of Manciana and its fortress, probably only a fortified building, there is scarce documentation, and from the end of the 13th century, along with the fortress of Villa di Cistrignana, no records exist, probably because of their then lesser strategic importance. Colle Bertingo was situated between the present localities of Colle and Santa Lucia. Its fortress was situated in a small flat stretch of land and for several centuries, had no important role in the defence system of Coreglia.


The town of Ghivizzano, from the end of the 10th century to the late 14th century was a domain under the giurisdiction of the Rolandinghi, then the Castracani who chose it as their family seat and made it the centre of their military operations. Its importance grew notably under Francesco Antelminelli, first deputy then Count of Coreglia, who resided in the fortress from 1329 to 1355. After his violent death at the hands of the sons of Castruccio, the fortress was taken over by Nicolao, son of Francesco, who maintained the jurisdiction of his father over all the Vicariate up to 1369. From then, Ghivizzano remained under the peaceful possession of Lucca, with the exception of the years from 1438, when it was conquered by Francesco Sforza, ally of Florence, and became the potentate of the latter up to 14th May 1441 when it was returned to the State of Lucca.
The Fortress of Ghivizzano is notably one of the most important military Medieval structures of the Middle Serchio Valley. At the foot of the fortress, the town developed in a circular pattern, with the buildings situated on top of the defence structures overlooking the Valley. A unique example can be found in the Via Sossala where the housing is reached by a covered passage with small open windows. The Church of SS. Pietro e Paolo, originally built around the ancient fortress crape in the 12th century, was extended eastwards to almost double its size in 1778, and in 1885 was raised in height. On the south side, at the main door, it is possible to see features of the ancient building, in particular in the facade with pensile arches decorated with human and animal busts and in the remains of the apse beside the edifices next to the presbytery. The interior contains several 7th century paintings, the most notable representing the Saints Pietro, Paolo and Lorenzo, by Tiberio Franchi. On the floor, two tombstones of Giovanna and Filippo Castracani, respectively wife and son of the Lord of Ghivizzano of the early 14th century.

Coreglia Antelminelli

The town of Coreglia Antelminelli developed during the early Middle Ages, when the fortress was built and a small community settled around it. The fortress was initially the domain of the Rolandinghi, Lords of Loppia, and had the role of advanced look-out post of the Republic of Lucca. In 1316, it became the property of Castruccio Castracani, grand Lucchese Leader and head Ghibellino, who in the same year became Lord of Lucca.
In 1341, Coreglia fell into the hands of the Florentines, to be taken back by Francesco Castracani degli Antelminelli, the town reached its maximum splendor. He was responsible for extending the church, enrich it with important works of art and gave himself the title of Count of Coreglia in 1355.
After 1369 the seat of the ancient vicariate passed from Coreglia to Borgo a Mozzano. During the first half of the 15th century during the attacks by the Florentines and their allies on the surrounding villages, Coreglia always remained loyal to Lucca. This loyalty was rewarded by the Republic in 1562 with the setting-up of the Commissariat of Coreglia which gave rise to the Municipality as we know it today.
Don’t miss the fortified structure in the upper part of the town, still today intact in various parts and portals. The Church of San Michele dates back to the 12th century and was originally the chapel of the fortress, as evidenced by the bell tower, ancient tower of the fortress, where the slit windows and lookout posts are still visible. The edifice, even if extensively changed by a reconstruction in the 9th century, still maintains traces of its original Romanesque structure, in particular in its façade and right side.
Inside, a single nave and various works of art of relative importance, among which a baptismal font of the 15th century and a tabernacle for Holy oil dating back to the end of the 15th century and recently attributed to Matteo Civitali, or to one of his closest pupils. Notable, a set in marble of the Annunciation and the Archangel Michele a work of the group of Giovanni Pisano attributed to Giovanni di Balduccio and Lupo di Francesco and datable to the 14th century. The Church of San Martino is one of the finest examples of the Lucchese architecture of the early Middle Ages. Three distinct phases of construction have been identified; of the first phase, datable to the 9th century, remains the layout, the left side with arched pattern and the apsidal head of the left aisle. What remains of the second phase, dating back to the middle of the 10th century is the apse with 3 single lancet windows, the apsidal head of the right aisle and all the internal arches, while the re-elaboration of the right side of the oratory is the result of a 7th century re-facing.
Inside, a nave and 2 aisles, even if presenting the ancient structure, conserves fittings of a later period in the history of the church, among which the 6th century fresco of the apsidal conch and the 8th century main altar in polychrome marble. Also notable, a tabernacle for Holy oils by Matteo Civitali or one of his collaborators.
Another “must” is the Museum of plastercraft figurines and of Emigration, (see description in the appropriate section of the site).


The town, as many others in the Middle Serchio Valley, was the property of the Rolandinghi, up to the 12th century, and then passed on to the Bizzarri, who maintained dominion for another century. In the upper part of the town you can admire the suggestive portal of the fortress and the 6th-century town hall. The Church of Santo Stefano of Romanesque origin (11th cent.) was extended in the form, of a Latin cross between 1616 and 1626, when 5 altars were added. Today the church maintains its Medieval sides of a refined facing in alternative rows of high and low blocks of smooth white limestone of the end of the 11th and early 12th cent. The façade was extensively reconstructed to include a rectangular portal and other openings which were later filled in.
Inside: the stoning of Santo Stefano by Ippolito Sani, end of the 6th century, and Our Lady with Child and Saints by Sante Orsi, 9th century.
From the road to Gromignana, a short pathway through a holm-oak wood leads to the Oratory of S. Ansano. The little church, of Romanesque origin was turned into an oratory around the 12th century, when the portal was added. In the 14th century, the presbytery became a hermitage for the hermit who took care of the church and surrounding land. In 1710, further restoration and extensions were carried out.
The ancient origins of the town are evidenced in the fortifications of Camfumalbi, where traces of a Ligurian stronghold and fragments of Roman ceramic have been found. The town, by the name of Grimignana recorded for the first time in 983 in a document listing the properties of the parish of Loppia. Evidence of its existence continues in the following centuries up to its disappearance in 1429, probably due to its destruction by Niccolò Fortebracci.
Finally, from the 16th to the beginning of the 19th century, records show its inhabitants as part of the municipality of Coreglia. The façade of the Church S. Cassiano and some walls of the fortress, below the bell tower, provide further evidence of the Medieval style.


In the 3rd and 2nd century B.C the hillside of Tereglio was inhabited by Ligurian tribes as confirmed by the necropolis of Margeglio. The events of the hamlet are however unknown from its founding up to 1287, when it made its appearance among the communities endowed with the privileges of the citizenship of Lucca.
From 1272, it was part of the Vicariate of Coreglia, then part of the countship of Francesco Castracani. A fortress of strategic importance and up to 1371 the last feudal domain remaining in the territories of Lucca of the sons of Francesco and later, in particular in the 17th century, it became bastion of defence of the Republic of Lucca against the continuous threats from the other side of the Apennines.
Notable in the town, the Medieval areas of the Fortino and Porta Mezzana, the 6th-century portals, casa Noccorini, La Dogana (the customs House) and casa Giannini, which in the course of the last century, during the construction of the Via di Foce da Giovo, provided accommodation to the Duchess Maria Luisa di Borbone, and to illustrious men of Letters and scientists.
Exceptional the Church of Santa Maria Assunta (Our Lady of the Assumption) dating back to the 13th century. Only a few fragments of sculpture contained in the façade are all that remain of the original Romanesque church. Notable modifications were carried out between 500 and 600 A.D., while in the 9th century 2 aisles were added. Its interior is characterized by a beautiful inlaid wooden ceiling dating back to the middle of the 17th century, one also decorated with paintings which today are lost. All the altars are inlaid wood, except the main altar dedicated to Maria Santissima and made of marble in 1766 and a lateral plaster altar of the first half of the 9th century. The other six are 7th century. Works of value: the wooden set representing Our Lady with Child of Tuscan artists of the 13th century. The Angel of the Annunciation also in wood recently attributed to the works of Piero D’Angelo and chronologically placeable at the end of the 4th century, the painted cross, attributed after being restored, to Berlinghiero or to one of his closest collaborators; the painting showing Santa Rosalia in front of Our Lady with Child by Pietro Paolini.
Continuing along the Provincial Road, opened by the Duchess Maria Luisa di Borbone on the project by Ing. Giacomo Marracci, one reaches the oasis and the natural reserve of Botri, where it is possible to visit the “Orrido” in search of the golden eagle and rare if not unique botanical and animal species. This road leads to the Rifugio Casentini and further on to Foce a Giovo with various possibilities of excursions from Monte Rondinaio to the Tre Potenze.


Vitiana is situated in a panoramic position in the Fegana Valley. Seat of a fortress, later destroyed and in a lookout position on an ancient mountain pass route to Emilia, it was mentioned for the first time in 994, as property of Rodinaldo del fu Giovanni of the Ronaldinghi family. It conserves a typical structure, with vaulted passageways, narrow flagstoned streets and stone houses. The parish church is dedicated to San Silvestro, originally Romanesque, but intensely renewed. The Oratory has a 6th-century structure but has been modified several times. The upper part is probably 8th century as evident in the writing on the vaulting above the entry: “Whoever says a Hail Mary to Our Lady, gains an indulgence, conceded by His Holiness Benedict XIV, Pontefice Massimo” (Pope up to 1758). The Oratory contains frescoes of San Leonardo di Noblac, San Tommaso Apostolo, San Pellegrino, San Francesco and also includes a Pope, probably Silvestro I, patron of the town.